Titulus Regius


Notes:

Rotuli parliamentorum; ut et petitiones, et placita in parliamento. 6 vols. folio, [1783],

Titulus Regius


Notes:

Rotuli parliamentorum; ut et petitiones, et placita in parliamento. 6 vols. folio, [1783], and index vol., folio, 1832.

Project typists were limited in reproducing conventions used in the original document. An italicized m indicates a tilde-like character over the m in the original. Similarly, an italicized co indicates a tilde-like character over those letters. An italicized ct indicates a small superscript "o"-like character. See below for more information.

Capitalization and spelling are presented as found in the original.

"~ A straight or wavy line, a tilde or tittle, over a letter, or a backward sweeping line over the last letter or letters, especially over minims, may either stand for the missing letter or letters, or indicated the need to supply the or double the 'm'... If this tilde appears above '-con' or '-ton' at the end of a word, it always indicates the omission of the 'i,' as in 'Commendations,'... English Handwriting 1400-1650: An Introductory Manual, Preston and Yeandle, Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1992.

Keyboarding by Charles Jordan, Arizona State University; proofreading by Heather von Stackelburg.

Margin: An Act for the Settlement of the Crown upon the King and his Iffue, with a recapitulation of his Title.

1. MEMORAND', quod quedam Billa exhibita fuit coram Do Rege, in Parliamento predco, in hec verba.

WHERE late heretofore, that is to fay, before the Confecracon, Coronacion, and Inthronizacion of oure Souveraign Lord the King Richard the Thirde, a Rolle of Perchement, conteignyng in writeing certeine Articles of the tenour undre writen, on the behalve and in the name of the thre Eftates of this Reame of Englond, that is to wite, of the Lords Spualls and Temporalls, and of the Comons, by many and diverfe Lords Spuells and Temporalls, and other Nobles and notable perfones of the Comons in grete multitude, was prefented and actualy delivered unto oure faid Souveraine Lord the King, to th'entent and effect expreffed at large in the fame Rolle; to the which Rolle, and to the Confideracions aud inftant Peticion comprized in the fame, our faid Souveraine Lord, for the public wele and tranquillite of this Land, benignely affented.

 

Nowe forafmoch as neither the faid three Eftats, neither the faid perfonnes, which in thair name prfented and delivered, as is abovefaid, the faid Rolle unto oure faid Souverain Lord the King, were affembled in fourme of Parliament; by occafion whereof, diverfe doubts, queftions and ambiguitees, been moved and engendred in the myndes of diverfe perfonnes, as it is faid: Therfore, to the perpetuall memorie of the trouth, and declaration of th'fame, bee it ordeigned, provided and ftablissfhed in this prefent Parliament, that the tenour of the faid Rolle, with all the contynue of the fame, prefented, as is abovefaid, and delivered to oure before faid Souverain Lord the King, in the name and on the behalve of the faid three Eftates out of Parliament, now by the fame three Eftates affembled in this prefent Parliament, and by auctorite of the fame, bee ratifyed, enrolled, recorded, approved and auctorized, into removying the occafion of doubtes and ambiguitees, and to all other laufull effect that fhall mowe thereof enfue; foo that all things faird, affirmed, fpecifyed, defired and remembred in the faid Rolle, and in the tenour of the fame underwritten, in the name of the faid three Eftates, to the effect expreffed in the fame Rolle, bee of like effect, vertue and force, as if all the fame things had ben foo faid, affirmed, fpecifyed, defired and remembred in a full Parliament, and by autorite of the fame accepted and approved. The tenoure of the faid Rolle of Parchement, whereof above is made mencione, foloweth and is fuch.

 

To the High and Myghty Prince Richard Duc of Gloucefter.

 

 

Pleafe it youre Noble Grace to underftande the Confideracon, Election and Peticion underwritten, of use the Lords Spuelx and Temporelx, and Comons of this Reame of Englond, and thereunto agreably to yeve your affent, to the comon and public wele of this Lande, to the comforte and gladneffe of all the people of the fame.

Furft, we confidre how that heretofore in tyme paffed, this Lande many years ftode in great profperite, honoure and tranquillite; which was caufed, forfomoch as the Kings than reignyng, ufed and followed the advice and counfaill of certaine Lords Spuelx and Temporelx, and othre perfonnes of approved fadneffe, prudence, policie and experience, dreding God, and havying tendre zele and affection to indifferent miniftration of Juftice, and to the comon and politique wele of the Land; than oure Lord God was dred, luffed and honoured; than within the Land was peas and tranquillite, and among Neghbours concorde and charite; than the malice of outward Enemyes was myghtily refifted and repreffed, and the Land honorably defended with many grete and glorious victories; than the entrecourfe of Merchandizes was largely ufed and exercifed: by which things above remembred, the Land was greatly enriched, foo that as wele the Merchants and Artificers, as other poure people, laborying for their livyng in diverfe occupations, had competent gayne, to the fuftentation of thaym and their houfeholds, livyng without miferable and intollerable povertie. But afterward, whan that fuch as had the rule and governaunce of this Land, delityng in adulation and flattery, and lede by fenfuality and concupifcence, folowed the counfaill of perfonnes, infolent, vicious, and of inordinate avarice, defpifyng the coungaill of good, vertuoufe and prudent perfonnes, fuch as above be remembred; the profperite of this Land daily decreafed, foo that felicite was turned into miferie, and profperite into adverfite, and the ordre of polecye, and of the Lawe of God and Man, confounded; whereby it is likely this Reame to falle into extreme miferie and defolation, which God defende, without due provifion of couvenable remedie bee had in this behalfe in all goodly haft.

 

Over this, amonges other things, more fpecially wee confider, howe that, the tyme of the Reigne of Kyng Edward the IIIIth , late deceffed, after the ungracious pretenfed Marriage, as all England hath caufe foo to fay, made betwixt the faid King Edward, and Elizabeth, fometyme Wife to Sir John Grey Knight, late nameing herfelf and many years heretofore Quene of Englond, the ordre of all poletique Rule was perverted, the Lawes of God and of Gods Church, and alfo the Lawes of Nature and of Englond, and alfo the laudable Cuftomes and Liberties of the fame, wherein every Englifhman in Inheritor, broken, fubverted and contempned, againft all reafon and juftice, foo that this Land was ruled by felfewill and pleafure, feare and drede, all manner of Equite and Lawes layd apart and defpifed, whereof enfued many inconvenients and mifchiefs, as Murdres, Extorfions and Oppreffions, namely of poore and impotent people, foo that no Man was fure of his Lif, Land ne Lyvelode, ne of his Wif, Doughter ne Servaunt, every good Maiden and Woman ftanding in drede to be ravifhed and defouled. And befides this, what Difcords, inwarde Battailles, etfufion of Chriftian Mens Blode, and namely, by the deftruction of the Blode of this Londe, was had and comitted within the fame, it is evident and notarie thourough all this Reame, unto the great forowe and hevyneffe of all true Englifhmen. And here alfo we confidre, howe that the feid pretenfed Mariage bitwixt the above named King Edward and Elizabeth Grey, was made of grete prefumption, without the knowyng and affent of the Lords of this Lond, and alfo by Sorcerie and Wichecrafte, committed by the faid Elizabeth, and her Moder Jaquett Ducheffe of Bedford, as the comon opinion of the people, and the publique voice and fame is thorough all this Land; and herafter, if and as the caas fhall require, fhall bee proved fufficiently in tyme and place convenient. And here alfo we confider, howe that faid pretenfed Mariage was made privaly and fecretely, without Edition of Banns, in a private Chamber, an prophane place, and not openly in the face of the Church, aftre the Lawe of Godds Churche, bot contrarie thereunto, and the laudable Cuftome of the Church of Englond.

And howe alfo, that at the tyme of contract of the fame pretenfed Mariage, and bifore and longe tyme after, the feid King Edward was and ftode maryed and trouth plight to oone Dame Elianor Butteler, Doughter of the old Earl of Shrewefbury, with whom the fame King Edward had made a precontracte of Matrimonie, longe tyyme bifore he made the faid pretenfed Mariage with the faid Elizabeth Grey, in maner and fourme abovefaid. Which premiffes being true, as in veray trouth they been true, it appearreth and foloweth evidently, that the faid King Edward duryng his lif, and the feid Elizabeth, lived together finfully and dampnably in adultery, againft the Lawe of God and of his Church; and therfore noo marivaile that the Souverain Lord and the head of this Land, being of fuch ungoldy difpoficion, and provokyng the ire and indinacion of oure Lord God, fuch haynous mifchieffs and inconvenients, as is above remembred, were ufed and comitted in the Reame amongs the Subjects. Alfo it appeareth evidently and followeth, that all th'Iffue and Children of the feid King Edward, been Baftards, and unable to inherite or to clayme any thing by Inheritance, by the Lawe and Cuftome of Englond.

 

Moreover we confidre, howe that afterward, by the thre Eftates of this Reame affembled in a Parliament holden at Weftm', the XVIIth yere of the Regne of the faid King Edward the IIIIth, he than being in poffeffion of the Coroune and Roiall Eftate, by an Acte made in the fame Parliament, George Duc of Clarence, Brother to the faid King Edward nowe deceffed, was convicted and atteinted of High Treafon; as in the fame Acte is conteigned more at large. Bicaufe and by reafon wherof, all the Iffue of the faid George, was and is difhabled and barred of all Right and Clayme, that in any wife they might have or chalenge by Enheritance, to the Crown and Dignite Roiall of this Reame, by the auncien Lawe and Cuftome of this fame Reame.

 

 

Over this we cofidre, howe that Ye be the undoubted Son and Heire of Richard late Duke of Yorke, verray enheritour to the feid Crowne and Dignite Roiall, and as in right Kyng of Englond, by wey of Enheritaunce; and that at ths tyme, the premiffes duely confidered, there is noon other perfoune lyvyng but Ye only, that by Right may clayme the faid Coroune and Dignite Royall, by way of Enheritaunce, and howe that Ye be born withyn this Lande; by reafon wherof, as we deme in oure myndes, Ye be more naturally enclyned to the profperite and comen wele of the fame; and all the thre Eftatis of the Lande have, and may have, more certayn knowlage of youre Byrth and Filiation abovefeid. Wee confidre alfo, the greate Wytte, Prudence, Juftice, Princely Courage, and the memorable and laudable Acts in diverfe Batalls, whiche as we by experience knowe Ye heretofore have done, for the falvacion and defence of this fame Reame; and alfo the greate nobleffe and excellence of your Byrth and Blode, as of hym that is defcended of the thre mooft Royall houfes in Criftendom, that is to fay, England, Fraunce, and Hifpanic.

 

Wherfore, thefe premiffes by us diligently confidred, we defyryng effectuonfly the peas, tranquillite, and wele publique of this Lande, and the reduccion of the fame to the auncien honourable eftate and profperite, and havyng in youre greate Prudence, Juftice, Princely Courage, and excellent Vertue, finguler confidence, have chofen in all that that in us is, and by this our Wrytyng choife You, high and myghty Prynce, into oure Kyng and Soveraigne Lorde &c., to whom we knowe for certayn it apperteygneth of Enheritaunce foo to be chofen. And herupon we humbly defire, pray, and require youre feid Noble Grace, that, accordyng to this Eleccion of us the Thre Eftates of this Lande, as by youre true Enherritaunce, Ye will accepte and take upon You the faid Crown and Royall Dignite, with all thyngs therunto annexed and apperteynyng, as to You of Right bilongyng, as wele by Enherritaunce as by lawfull Eleccion; and, in caas Ye fo do, we promitte to ferve and to affifte your Highneffe, as true and feithfull Subgietts and Leigemen, and to lyve and dye with You in this matter, and every other jufte quarrell.

 

For certainly wee be determined, rather to aventure and comitte us to the perill of oure lyfs and jopardye of deth, than to lyve in fuche thraldome and bondage as we have lyved long tyme hertofore, oppreffed and injured by Extorcions and newe Impoficons, ayenft the Lawes of God and Man, and the Libertee, old Police, and Lawes of this Reame, wheryn every Englisfhman is enherited. Oure Lorde God, Kyng of all Kyngs, by whos infynyte goodneffe and eternall providence all thyngs been pryncipally gouverned in this world, lighten youre foule, and graunt You grace to do, as well in this matier as in all other, all that that may be accordyng to his wille and pleafure, and to the comen and publique wele of this Lande; to that, after greate cloudes, troubles, ftormes and tempeftes, the Son of Juftice and of Grace may fhyne uppon us, to the comforte and gladneffe of all true Englifhmen.

Albeit that the Right, Title, and Eftate, whiche oure Souveraigne Lord the Kyng Richard the Third, hath to and in the Crown and Roiall Dignite of this Reame of Englond, with all thyngs therunto within the fame Reame, and without it, united, annexed and apperteynyng, been jufte and lawefull, as grounded upon the Lawes of God and of Nature, and also upon the auncien Lawes and laudable Cuftomes of this faid Reame, and fo taken and reputed by all fuche perfounes as ben lerned in the abovefaid Lawes and Cuftumes. Yit nevertheleffe, forafmoche as it is confidred, that the moft parte of the people of this Lande is not fuffifantly lerned in the abovefaid Lawes and Cuftumes, wherby the trueth and right in this behalf of liklyhode may be hyd, and nat clerely knowen to all the people, and thereupon put in doubt and queftion.

 

And over this, howe that the Courte of Parliament is of fuche auctorite, and the people of this Lande of fuche nature and difpoficion, as experience teacheth, that manifeftacion and declaration of any trueth or right, made by the Thre Eftates of this Reame affembled in Parliament, and by auctorite of the fame, maketh, before all other thyngs, mooft feith and certaynte; and, quietyng mens myndes, remoeveth the occafion of all doubts and feditious langage. Therfore, at the requeft, and by affent of the Thre Eftates of this Reame, that is to fay, the Lordes Spuelx and Temporalx, and Comens of this Lande, affembled in this prefent Parliament, by auctorite of the fame, bee it pronounced, decreed, and declared, that oure faid Soveraign Lorde the Kyng was, and is, veray and undoubted Kyng of this Reame of Englond, with all thyngs therunto withyn the fame Reame, and without it, united, annexed and apperteyning, as well by right of Confanguinite and Enheritaunce, as by lawefull Elleccion, Confecration, and Coronacion. And over this, that, at the requeft, and by the affent and auctorite abovefaid, bee it ordeigned, enacted and eftablisfhed, that the faid Crown and Roaill Dignite of this Reame, and the Enheritaunce of the fame, and other thyngs therunto within this fame Reame, or withoute it, unite, annexed, and nowe apperteigning, reft and abyde in the perfoune of oure faid Soveraigne Lorde the Kyng, duryng his Lyff, and, after his Deceffe, in his heires of his Body begotten. And in efpeciall, at the requeft, and by affent and auctorite abovefaid, bee it ordeigned, enacted, eftabled, pronounced, decreed, and declared, that the High and Excellent Prynce Edward, Son of oure faid Soveraign Lorde the Kyng, be Heire Apparent of the fame our Soveraign Lord the Kyng, to fuccede to hym in the abovefaid Crown and Roaill Dignite, with all thyngs as is aforefaid therunto unite, annexed and apperteigning; to have them after the Deceffe of oure faid Soveraign Lorde the Kyng, to hym and to his heires of his Body laufully begotten.

QUE quidem Billa Coibus Regni Angl' in dco Parliamento exiften' tranfportata fuit: Cui quidem Bille iidem Ces affenfum fuum prebuerunt fub hiis verbis.

 

 

A ceft Bille les Cenz fount affentuz.

Quibus quidem Billa et Affenfu coram Do Rege in Parliamento pdco lectis, auditis et plenius intellectis, de affenfu Dorum Spualium et Temporalium in dco Parliamento fimiliter exiften', ac Ccoitatis predce, necnon auctoritate ejufdem Parliamenti, pronunciatum, decretum et declaratum exiftit, omnia et fingula in Billa pdca contenta fore vera et indubia; ac idem Dus Rex, de affenfu dcorum trium Statuum Regni, et auctorite predca, omnia et fingula premiffa in Billa pdca contenta concedit, ac ea pro vero et indubio pronunciat, decernit, et ceclarat.

 

 

Titulus Regius


Notes:

Based on the text on the left, the language was modernized at my best knowledge and basically for my own use. I dont claim it to be correct, as English is not my native tongue, and Im very far from being an expert in any thing medieval.

Please dont hesitate to point out errors, or suggest corrections and improvements. If you use this text further on, please keep the side-by-side form and the original credits, as stated on the left. I just copied their work to make it better readable while keeping the original text for comparison.

~ a Ricardian enthusiast ~

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Margin: An Act for the Settlement of the Crown upon the King and his Issue, with a recapitulation of his Title.

1. MEMORAND', quod quedam Billa exhibita suit coram Do Rege, in Parliamento predco, in hec verba.

WHERE late heretofore, that is to say, before the Consecration, Coronation, and Inthronization of our Souvereign Lord the King Richard the Third, a Rolle of Parchment, containing in writing certain Articles of the tenour undre writen, on the behalf and in the name of the three Estates of this Realm of England, that is to wite, of the Lords Spualls and Temporalls, and of the Comons, by many and diverse Lords Spuells and Temporalls, and other Nobles and notable persons of the Comons in great multitude, was presented and actualy delivered unto our said Souveraine Lord the King, to the intent and effect expressed at large in the same Rolle; to the which Rolle, and to the Considerations and instant Petition comprized in the same, our said Souveraine Lord, for the public wele and tranquillite of this Land, benignely assented.

 

Now forasmuch as neither the said three Estats, neither the said persons, which in their name persented and delivered, as is abovesaid, the said Rolle unto our said Souveraine Lord the King, were assembled in fourme of Parliament; by occasion whereof, diverse doubts, questions and ambiguitees, been moved and engendred in the minds of diverse persons, as it is said: Therefore, to the perpetuall memorie of the truth, and declaration of the same, be it ordained, provided and established in this present Parliament, that the tenour of the said Rolle, with all the continue of the same, presented, as is abovesaid, and delivered to our before said Souverain Lord the King, in the name and on the behalf of the said three Estates out of Parliament, now by the same three Estates assembled in this present Parliament, and by authority of the same, be ratifyed, enrolled, recorded, approved and authorized, into removing the occasion of doubts and ambiguitees, and to all other lawfull effect that shall mowe thereof ensue; so that all things said, affirmed, specified, desired and remembered in the said Rolle, and in the tenour of the same underwritten, in the name of the said three Estates, to the effect expressed in the same Rolle, be of like effect, virtue and force, as is all the same things had been soo said, affirmed, specified, desired and remembered in a full Parliament, and by authority of the same accepted and approved. The tenoure of the said Rolle of Parchement, whereof above is made mentioned, follows and is such.

To the High and Mighty Prince Richard Duc of Gloucester.

 

Please it your Noble Grace to understande the Consideration, Election and Petition underwritten, of use the Lords Spuelx and Temporelx, and Comons of this Realm of Englond, and thereunto agreeably to yeve your assent, to the comon and public wele of this Lande, to the comfort and gladness of all the people of the same.

Furst, we consider how that heretofore in time passed, this Lande many years stode in great prosperity, honour and tranquillite; which was caused, forsomuch as the Kings than reigning, used and followed the advice and council of certain Lords Spuelx and Temporelx, and other persons of approved sadnesse, prudence, policie and experience, dreading God, and having tendre zele and affection to indifferent ministration of Justice, and to the comon and politique wele of the Land; than our Lord God was dread, loved and honoured; than within the Land was peace and tranquillite, and among Neighbours concorde and charite; than the malice of outward Enemies was mightily resisted and repressed, and the Land honorably desended with many great and glorious victories; than the entrecourse of Merchandizes was largely used and exercised: by which things above remembred, the Land was greatly enriched, so that as wele the Merchants and Artisicers, as other poor people, laboring for their living in diverse occupations, had competent gain, to the sustentation of thaym and their households, living without miserable and intolerable poverty. But afterward, whan that such as had the rule and governance of this Land, deliting in adulation and slattery, and led by sensuality and concupiscence, followed the council of persons, insolent, vicious, and of inordinate avarice, despising the council of good, virtous and prudent persons, such as above be remembered; the prosperity of this Land daily decreased, so that felicity was turned into misery, and prosperity into adversity, and the order of polecye, and of the Law of God and Man, confounded; whereby it is likely this Realm to fall into extreme misery and desolation, which God defende, without due provision of couvenable remedy be had in this behalf in all goodly haft.

 

Over this, among other things, more specially we consider, how that, the time of the Reign of King Edward the IIIIth , late deceased, after the ungracious pretensed Marriage, as all England hath cause so to say, made betwixt the said King Edward, and Elizabeth, sometime Wife to Sir John Grey Knight, late naming herself and many years heretofore Queen of England, the order of all politique Rule was perverted, the Laws of God and of Gods Church, and also the Laws of Nature and of England, and also the laudable Customs and Liberties of the same, wherein every Englishman in Inheritor, broken, subverted and contempned, against all reason and justice, soo that this Land was ruled by selfewill and pleasure, feare and dread, all manner of Equity and Laws laid apart and despised, whereof ensued many inconvenients and mischief, as Murdres, Extorsions and Oppressions, namely of poore and impotent people, so that no Man was sure of his Life, Land nor Livelyhood, ne of his Wife, Daughter nor Servant, every good Maiden and Woman standing in dread to be ravished and defouled. And besides this, what Discords, inwarde Battailles, effusion of Christian Mens Blood, and namely, by the destruction of the Blood of this Land, was had and comitted within the same, it is evident and notarie thourough all this Realm, unto the great sorrow and heavyness of all true Englishmen. And here also we consider, how that the said pretensed Mariage bitwixt the above named King Edward and Elizabeth Grey, was made of great presumption, without the knowing and assent of the Lords of this Land, and also by Sorcerie and Witchcraft, committed by the said Elizabeth, and her Moder Jaquett Duchesse of Bedford, as the comon opinion of the people, and the publique voice and same is thorough all this Land; and herafter, is and as the case shall require, shall be proved sufficiently in time and place convenient. And here also we consider, how that said pretensed Mariage was made privately and secretly, without Edition of Banns, in a private Chamber, an prophane place, and not openly in the face of the Church, after the Law of Godds Church, but contrarie thereunto, and the laudable Custom of the Church of England.

 

And how also, that at the time of contract of the same pretensed Mariage, and before and long time after, the said King Edward was and stode maryed and trouth plight to one Dame Elianor Butteler, Daughter of the old Earl of Shrewesbury, with whom the same King Edward had made a precontracte of Matrimonie, long time before he made the said pretensed Mariage with the said Elizabeth Grey, in manner and form abovesaid.

Which premisses being true, as in very truth they been true, it appears and follows evidently, that the said King Edward during his life, and the said Elizabeth, lived together sinfully and damnably in adultery, against the Law of God and of his Church; and therfore no marivaile that the Souverain Lord and the head of this Land, being of such ungodly disposition, and provoking the ire and indignation of our Lord God, such heinous mischiefs and inconvenients, as is above remembered, were used and comitted in the Realm amongst the Subjects. Also it appears evidently and follows, that all the Issue and Children of the said King Edward, been Bastards, and unable to inherit or to claim any thing by Inheritance, by the Law and Custom of England.

 

 

Moreover we consider, how that afterward, by the thre Estates of this Realm assembled in a Parliament holden at Westm', the XVIIth yere of the Regne of the said King Edward the IIIIth, he than being in possession of the Crown and Royal Estate, by an Acte made in the same Parliament, George Duc of Clarence, Brother to the said King Edward now deceased, was convicted and attainted of High Treason; as in the same Acte is contained more at large. Because and by reason wherof, all the Issue of the said George, was and is disabled and barred of all Right and Claim, that in any wise they might have or challenge by Enheritance, to the Crown and Dignite Royal of this Realm, by the ancient Law and Custom of this same Realm.

 

 

Over this we consider, how that Ye be the undoubted Son and Heir of Richard late Duke of Yorke, very Inheritor to the said Crown and Dignite Royal, and as in right King of England, by wey of Inheritance; and that at this time, the premisses duely considered, there is noon other person living but Ye only, that by Right may claim the said Crown and Dignite Royal, by way of Inheritance, and how that Ye be born within this Land; by reason wherof, as we deme in our minds, Ye be more naturally inclined to the prosperity and common wele of the same; and all the three Estates of the Land have, and may have, more certain knowledge of your Birth and Filiation abovesaid. We consider also, the great Wytte, Prudence, Justice, Princely Courage, and the memorable and laudable Acts in diverse Battles, which as we by experience know Ye heretofore have done, for the salvation and desence of this same Realm; and also the great noblesse and excellence of your Birth and Blood, as of him that is descended of the three most Royal houses in Christendom, that is to say, England, France, and Hispanic.

 

 

Wherfore, these premisses by us diligently considered, we desiring effectuously the peace, tranquillite, and wele publique of this Lande, and the reduction of the same to the ancient honourable estate and prosperite, and having in your great Prudence, Justice, Princely Courage, and excellent Virtue, singular confidence, have chosen in all that that in us is, and by this our Writing choose You, high and mighty Prince, into our King and Soverain Lorde &c., to whom we knowe for certain it apperteigns of Inheritance so to be chosen. And herupon we humbly desire, pray, and require your said Noble Grace, that, according to this Election of us the Three Estates of this Lande, as by your true Inheritance, Ye will accept and take upon You the said Crown and Royall Dignite, with all things therunto annexed and apperteining, as to You of Right belonging, as wele by Inheritance as by lawfull Election; and, in case Ye so do, we promise to serve and to assist your Highness, as true and faithfull Subjects and Leigemen, and to live and die with You in this matter, and every other just quarrel.

 

For certainly we be determined, rather to aventure and comitte us to the peril of our life and jeopardy of death, than to live in such thraldome and bondage as we have lived long time hertofore, oppressed and injured by Extortions and new Impositons, against the Lawses of God and Man, and the Libertee, old Police, and Laws of this Realme, wherin every Englishman is enherited. Our Lord God, King of all Kings, by whose infinite goodness and eternal providence all things been principally governed in this world, lighten your soul, and grant You grace to do, as well in this matter as in all other, all that that may be according to his will and pleasure, and to the common and publique wele of this Lande; to that, after great cloudes, troubles, stormes and tempestes, the Son of Justice and of Grace may shine upon us, to the comfort and gladness of all true Englishmen.

Albeit that the Right, Title, and Estate, which our Souverain Lord the King Richard the Third, hath to and in the Crown and Roiall Dignite of this Realme of England, with all things therunto within the same Realme, and without it, united, annexed and apperteining, been just and lawfull, as grounded upon the Laws of God and of Nature, and also upon the ancient Laws and laudable Customs of this said Realme, and so taken and reputed by all suche persons as been learned in the abovesaid Laws and Customs. Yet nevertheless, forasmuch as it is considred, that the most part of the people of this Lande is not suffisiently learned in the abovesaid Laws and Customes, whereby the truth and right in this behals of likelihood may be hid, and not clearely known to all the people, and thereupon put in doubt and question.

 

And over this, howe that the Court of Parliament is of such authority, and the people of this Lande of suche nature and disposition, as experience teaches, that manifestation and declaration of any truth or right, made by the Three Estates of this Realme assembled in Parliament, and by authority of the same, maketh, before all other things, moost seith and certainty; and, quieting mens minds, removes the occasion of all doubts and seditious language. Therfore, at the request, and by assent of the Three Estates of this Realme, that is to say, the Lordes Spuelx and Temporalx, and Commons of this Lande, assembled in this present Parliament, by authority of the same, be it pronounced, decreed, and declared, that our said Souverain Lord the King was, and is, very and undoubted King of this Realme of England, with all things therunto within the same Realm, and without it, united, annexed and apperteyning, as well by right of Consanguinite and Inheritance, as by lawfull Election, Consecration, and Coronation. And over this, that, at the request, and by the assent and authority abovesaid, bee it ordeigned, enacted and established, that the said Crown and Royal Dignite of this Realm, and the Inheritance of the same, and other things therunto within this same Realm, or withoute it, unite, annexed, and nowe apperteigning, rest and abide in the persoune of our said Soveraigne Lorde the King, during his Life, and, after his Decease, in his heirs of his Body begotten. And in especiall, at the request, and by assent and authority abovesaid, be it ordeigned, enacted, establed, pronounced, decreed, and declared, that the High and Excellent Prince Edward, Son of our said Soveraign Lord the King, be Heire Apparent of the same our Soveraign Lord the King, to succede to him in the abovesaid Crown and Royal Dignite, with all things as is aforesaid therunto unite, annexed and apperteigning; to have them after the Decease of our said Soveraign Lord the King, to him and to his heirs of his Body lawfully begotten.

 

QUE quidem Billa Coibus Regni Angl' in dco Parliamento existen' transportata suit: Cui quidem Bille iidem Ces assensum suum prebuerunt sub hiis verbis.

 

A cest Bille les Cenz sount assentuz.

Quibus quidem Billa et Assensu coram Do Rege in Parliamento pdco lectis, auditis et plenius intellectis, de assensu Dorum Spualium et Temporalium in dco Parliamento similiter existen', ac Ccoitatis predce, necnon auctoritate ejusdem Parliamenti, pronunciatum, decretum et declaratum existit, omnia et singula in Billa pdca contenta sore vera et indubia; ac idem Dus Rex, de assensu dcorum trium Statuum Regni, et auctorite predca, omnia et singula premissa in Billa pdca contenta concedit, ac ea pro vero et indubio pronunciat, decernit, et ceclarat.